An overview of Britain’s drones and drone development projects

[Last updated May 2022]

  • MQ-9 Reaper

The RAF began using MQ-9 Reaper drones in Afghanistan in October 2007 with the first British drone strike taking place at the end of May 2008. While the drones themselves are located overseas, they are operated by RAF air crew from Creech Air Force Base in Nevada and, from April 2013, RAF Waddington in Lincolnshire.

After a UK Reaper crashed in April 2008, additional Reapers were purchased bringing the number first up to five, and then, in July 2014, to ten. All British Reaper drones were withdrawn from Afghanistan by the end of 2014

In October 2014, RAF Reaper drones were deployed for operations against ISIS in Iraq. In August 2015, a British Reaper targeted and killed Cardiff-born Reyaad Khan near Raqqa, in Syria. In December 2015, after a parliamentary vote, use of force against ISIS was extended to Syria. While the UK will not officially confirm where UK Reapers on operations in Iraq and Syria are based, it is believed to be Ali Al Salem air base in Kuwait.

In January 2019, the MoD confirmed that one British Reaper was in the US for decommissioning as it had reached the end of its life, reducing the UK’s Reaper fleet to nine. The MoD confirmed in November 2021 that an additional MQ-9A Reaper had been procured under a ‘Second Operating Location Alternate Reaper (SOLAR)’ requirement, bringing the number of UK armed drones back up to ten.  However in December 2021 a UK Reaper crashed on landing at an undisclosed location.  It is not known if the drone is repairable.

Since 2019, UK Reapers are known to have been undertaking military operations outside of Operation Shader (the UK’s operation against ISIS in Iraq and Syria) although the government is refusing to disclose what the purpose of these sorties are or where they are taking place.


  • Protector (SkyGuardian)

In October 2015, then Prime Minister David Cameron announced that the UK would double its fleet of armed drones by acquiring the newest version of the Predator drone which General Atomics call ‘SkyGuardian’ but the UK is choosing to call ‘Protector’. The Protector drone is due to be in service with the RAF from around mid-2024, but initial aircraft are likely to be handed over to the RAF for test flights within the US before then.

General Atomics brought a SkyGuardian to the UK for flight trials in summer 2021.  During the visit, the Chief of the Air Staff insisted that the project’s financial troubles (which has seen costs increased by 74%) were over.

A key difference between SkyGuardian/Protector and Reaper is that it is being built to standards that will allow it to be certified to fly unrestricted within civil airspace.  As the UK is the first country to purchase the new aircraft, a key issue for the MoD will be convincing airspace regulators and the public that it is safe to fly in UK skies.  Protector will be based at RAF Waddington in Lincolnshire.  The MoD has announced the creation of a global training hub at Waddington to train UK and overseas pilots to use SkyGuardian/Protector.

For more details read our detailed briefing on Protector.


  • Watchkeeper

Watchkeeper is a large unarmed drone operated by the British Army rather than the RAF. It is assigned to the Royal Artillery and its primary purpose is to target in artillery and rocket strikes.

Watchkeeper was built jointly by Thales UK and the Israeli company Elbit Systems. It is based on the Elbit’s Hermes 450 drone. Fifty-four Watchkeepers were built under a £1 billion contract and were originally due to be in service in 2011. Much delayed, a small number of Watchkeepers were deployed to Afghanistan in the final weeks of UK operations there in late 2014.

Five Watchkeeper drones have crashed in the UK during testing or training exercises since 2014.  A small number of Watchkeepers are currently deployed to Cyprus for training purposes, while others are used for training flights over Salisbury Plain. Watchkeeper was deployed to help spot refugees attempting to cross the Channel in September 2020, but the operation was quietly ended the following month. It was reported in January 2022 that talks were on-going between the MoD and Elbit Systems in regard to a possible mid-life upgrade.


  • Taranis

Taranis is a demonstrator aircraft jointly funded by the Ministry of Defence and BAE Systems. It was unveiled in 2010 and went through a series of flight-tests and trials in Australia.

Taranis has three flight modes: manual, automatic and autonomous.  According to BAE Systems, when in automatic flight – the primary mode for take-off, general flying and landing – Taranis is essentially following 3D waypoints. When in autonomous mode, however, the aircraft “starts to think and self-navigate”.   “It can self-navigate within a boundary of set constraints,” flight-test engineers told the media. “It does have limitations on what we give it in the mission plan – it can only fly in certain areas – but it does think for itself, it will navigate, and it will search for targets.” The third mode, manual, provides a fail-safe, although this was rarely used during test flights.

Little has been said about Taranis since 2016 other than ‘lessons learned’ from the development of it will feed into future projects such as Tempest (see below).  However, it is possible that Taranis or a derivative is being developed in secret.


  • Tempest / Future Combat Air System (FCAS)

In 2012 and 2014 the UK and France signed agreements and committed funding to develop a new Anglo-French unmanned aircraft dubbed the Future Combat Air System (FCAS). This new drone would be based on Taranis and the European-developed nEUROn. However, seemingly in light of the Brexit decision, in 2017 France signed a deal with Germany to develop a new aircraft and the Anglo-French programme fell by the wayside.

In response, the UK announced that it was developing a new ‘optionally manned’ FCAS dubbed ‘Tempest’. The UK has committed £2 billion since 2018 for the initial phase of the project and is currently cooperating with Italy and Sweden on the project with other potential partners including Saudi Arabia and Japan.

It is still unclear at this stage if Tempest will have an on-board pilot, be controlled from the ground or have both options. It is often described as a system of systems.  In December 2020, an MoD briefing on Tempest said anticipated capabilities include the use of artificial intelligence to assist the pilot, the ability to manage drones in support of the fighter (see Mosquito, below), and ‘all the advancements that came along with previous generation aircraft’ including stealth and data fusion. It is not anticipated that there will be any further financial decision about government spending on Tempest until 2025.  However, there have already been serious questions raised about the cost of the project and suggestions that the UK-led project will eventually have to merge with the French/German project.


  • Project Mosquito / Loyal Wingman drone

In July 2019, the MoD announced that the RAF’s Rapid Capabilities Office had awarded contracts to three companies/consortium to develop a new ‘loyal wingman’ unmanned drone, under a project named ‘Mosquito’.

The idea of ‘loyal wingman’ drones is to fly alongside or slightly ahead of larger military aircraft and undertake various tasks including surveillance, electronic warfare, laser-guiding weapons onto targets, or even to carry out air-to-air or air-to-ground strikes.  The drones would be controlled by the larger aircraft but have a high degree of autonomy.

In January 2021, the MoD announced that it has awarded a £30m development contract to a team led by Spirit AeroSystems in Belfast to produce a full-scale drone for a test programme beginning in 2023.  Mosquito is being developed under the MoD’s Lightweight Affordable Novel Combat Aircraft (LANCA) programme.


  • Swarming drones

The MoD is undertaking development work around the use of swarming drones (that is, at least 10 – 20 small drones acting in concert) under the name ‘Alvina’ but much of this is taking place behind closed doors. The then Chief of the Air Staff, Stephen Hillier told the Air and Space Power Conference in July 2019 that he was re-forming RAF Squadron 216 to develop drone swarming capability and deliver it to the frontline.

In October 2020, Italian company Leonardo, revealed that it had conducted a live trial of a swarming drones in association with the RAF. During the demo, a number of small, remotely-piloted Callen Lenz drones were equipped with an electronic decoy, allowing each drone to individually deliver a highly-sophisticated jamming effect. In addition, the decoy packages were programmed and navigated to work collaboratively to cause maximum confusion. The company press release – subsequently removed – said “information gained from the demonstration will be used to inform potential future UK programmes to acquire an autonomous swarming drone capability.”

In January 2021 the MoD announced that it had conducted a large-scale demonstration of swarming drones in Cumbria as part of its ‘Many Drones Make Light Work’ programme. The demonstration consisted of five different types and sizes of small fixed-wing drones, with different operational capabilities, together with six different payload types.

The new Chief of the Air Staff, Sir Mike Wigston, told a conference in July 2021 that he had a “futuristic and ambitious” vision for the capability, with plans to increase the capability year by year.


  • Zephyr

Zephyr is a solar-powered, electric, High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) drone ordered by the UK Ministry of Defence but not yet in service. The drone, built by Airbus, is designed to linger at an altitude of about 70,000 feet (21 kilometres) for months at a time for surveillance or to provide a temporary boost to communications. The craft, which has a 25-meter (82-foot) wingspan, weighs 75 kilos (165 pounds) and is hand-launched by three people.

While three aircraft have been ordered at a cost thought to be around £15m, one crashed during a test flight in Australia in March 2019 and a second crash of a Zephyr occurred in September 2019 (although it is not clear if this was a UK ordered system). Ministers told parliament in August 2020 that lessons learned from these crashes were being taken forward in a new test programme but that had been delayed by Covid-19.  Subsequent flight trials, which took place from Arizona in July and August 2021, were “an important step” towards operationalising the capability said the MoD in late 2021.  The MoD announced Project Aether in December 2021, seeking “an uncrewed stratospheric communications and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability with a global reach in near-real time.”


  • Desert Hawk III

The Desert Hawk III is a battery-powered small drone in service with the British Army. It was developed by Lockheed Martin in 2002 and has been through a number of upgrades. The drone is hand-launched and can fly for around one hour with a radius of around fifteen kilometres. In April 2020 the MoD reported that there were 229 Desert Hawk III drones held by UK armed forces, with around a total of £70 million spent on the system.

In September 2021, the MoD announced it was seeking to acquire two new small drones under its Tiquila programme (see below) which is likely to see the Desert Hawk III replaced.


  • Black Hornet

Black Hornet is a nano (sometimes called mini) drone that fits in the palm of a hand and weighs less than 200 grams. It has a full-motion video camera and is primarily used by soldiers to explore in and around buildings. It has a range of around 300 metres.

160 were procured in 2013 at a cost of £20 million for use in Afghanistan and then retired in 2017. However, in 2019 Gavin Williamson ordered 30 more Black Hornet Mk3 from Norwegian company FLIR Systems at a cost of £1.4 million to further explore the use of Nano drones.  In September 2021, the MoD announced it was seeking to acquire two new small drones under its Tiquila programme (see below).


  • Puma AE

The Puma AE drone is a small, drone designed for land and maritime operations. Each system comprises three air vehicles and two ground stations and can be launched by hand or by a rail system, with the drone capable of landing on water or land. Its primary use is for surveillance and intelligence gathering and is equipped with both electro-optical and infrared cameras, while an under-wing bay allows for additional payloads including communications relay and laser marker systems.

The UK has trialled the system on Royal Navy ships and it is currently deployed with the 300-strong UK Task Group in Mali as part of Operation Newcombe. The drone is just over 4½ft long, with a wingspan of 9ft and weights around 12 lbs and can fly for up to two hours with a top speed of 50 mph.  In Autumn 2021, the Navy announced that it has  acquired a further 12 Puma drones.


  • Drone40 (D40)

The DefendTex Drone40 (D40) is a nano UAV/loitering munition in operations with British forces in Mali.  The systems can be launched by hand or alternately projected from a grenade launcher.  According to the manufacturer it has a maximum flying time of 60 minutes and maximum range of 12 km.

The D40 can carry a small munition but according to officers in Mali, “the version we are using is hand launched and does not include any munitions – it is purely used for surveillance and reconnaissance.”  In February 2021, the MoD said: “UK Armed Forces deployed in Mali for UN peacekeeping operations are equipped with the DefendTex D40 and other state-of-the-art Unmanned Aerial Systems to give them the best possible situational awareness.”


  • Bug drone

UAVTek’s ‘Bug’ is a nano-drone weighing 196g – similar to the weight of a smartphone – with 40-minute battery life and a 2km range. In conjunction with BAE Systems, the British Army have bought 30 bug drones to trial.

The Bug drone has a normal payload capacity of up to 50g, but it has capability to carry payloads of up to 100g while still remaining within the 250g weight limit.

The drone can carry a range of systems such as microphone, loudspeaker, white/infrared (IR)/red light, interchangeable lenses, mapping camera, thermal camera and distraction device. The company says the drone is being developed to also act as a listening device.



  • The Tiquila programme

The UK MoD announced in autumn 2021 that under its Tiquila programme it is seeking to acquire two new small drones for use by the British army.  One would be a mini-system (like the ‘bug’ or ‘Black Hornet’ systems (see above), while the other would be a fixed-wing drone, similar in size to the Desert Hawk (above).  The exact numbers of each type of drone being procured is still to be negotiated under the government’s £150-£400m contract.



  • Thor

Israeli company Elbit systems say they have supplied the UK MoD with “five autonomous swarms of six unmanned aircraft systems each” for the British Army’s Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) project.  It is believed that the Thor mini-UAS is being supplied.

Video of system being demonstrated (to Netherlands military) in Northern Israel in Oct 2021.

The company say that the system will use its TORCH-X RAS command and control systems, which “provides automated UAS mission management aided by artificial intelligence and machine learning, as well as full autonomy solutions for the platform level”.  It is likely that the system is being trialled rather than being used in an operational capacity at this stage.


Skydio X2D

US marine testing Skydio X2 drone

In May 2022, US company Marlborough Communications announced that it had signed a £3m contract to provide an unspecified number of  Skydio X2D nano drones to the UK MoD.  The procurement is being undertaken by the MoD’s Future Capabilities Group as part of a “buy-and-try-at-scale procurement model, which puts technologically advanced equipment in the hands of troops far quicker than would traditionally expected.”  The Skydio X2D is unarmed and weighs about 3 pounds, and when folded up is about a foot long by 5.5 inches wide.


  • Project Vampire

Project Vampire seeks to acquire a new fixed-wing drone for the Royal Navy to undertake intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, as well as electromagnetic operations and threat simulation.  Phase 1, which is intended to last up to four years, seeks to deliver up to four air vehicles based on a mature design which will use a single launcher and ground station.

The project follows testing of a QinetiQ Banshee Jet 80+ drone on HMS Prince of Wales aircraft carrier in September 2021 (pic right).



  • Malloy T-600 / Windracer Ultra 

The Royal Navy has undertaken two test programmes with ‘heavy lift’ drones that can carry payloads of 100kg over long distance and more than 250kg over a shorter distance to re-supply its ships.

The drones tested were the Malloy T-160 large quadcopter and the Windracer’s Ultra drone.  The Ultra is an all-aluminium cargo which has been tested on commercial Royal Mail runs in the Orkney Islands and Scilly Isles.  Malloy’s T-600 is an upsized version of its cargo-delivery drones, which are in military and commercial service today.

In the most recent trials, the T-600 flew with a 550-pound payload over a shorter distance, while the fixed-wing Ultra flew a 220-pound payload over a distance of 540 nm and dropped it onto a mock-up of a Queen Elizabeth-class carrier flight deck.  Both Malloy and Windracers were given a £300,000 contract to further develop their drones.